PHARMACY
Introduction
Potentization
Centisimal & Decimal Scale
Potency
Trituration & Succussion
Fifty Millesimal scale
Potentization
(Modified Techniques)
Scope of Homeopathy
SCALES OF POTENTISATION

According to Stuart Close, "Homeopathic potentisation is a mathematico-mechanical process for the reduction, according to scale, of crude, inert or poisonous medical substances to a state of physical solubility, physiological assimilability and therapeutic activity and harmlessness, for use as Homeopathic healing remedies."

The "mathematics" of potentisation or drug dynamization are the scales under which the drug substances in their crude, original form or state are reduced or quantitatively decreased in a definite ratio. This reduction is followed by the mechanical part of potentisation.

1. In the preparation of potencies of liquid drug substances three scales are used

  • Centesimal
  • Decimal
  • Fifty Millesimal

2. In the preparation of potencies from solid drug substances, decimal and centesimal scales are used. When the trituration attains 6X potency; then only it is fit to be converted into liquid potency and subsequently treated.

CENTESIMAL SCALE

INTRODUCTION
This scale was introduced by Hahnemann in 5th edition of Organon of Medicine, aphorism 270 and is more commonly used.

DEFINITION
Centesimal scale is based on the principle that the first potency must contain the one-hundredth part of the original drug and each succeeding potency, one-hundredth part of the preceding one.

DESIGNATION
This scale is designated by suffixing the letter 'C' or 'CH' to the number indicating the potency, i.e. the first potency is 1C or 1CH, followed by 2C or 2CH and so on. It may also be denoted by simply affixing the numerical to the name of the drug without any letter.

The higher strengths are usually represented by Roman numerals
1M= 1,000
10M= 10,000
50M= 50,000.
   This should not be confused with 50 Millesimal scalepotencies.
CM= 100,000

METHOD OF PREPARATION
SUCCUSSION

  • Take a perfectly clean and new phial.
  • Take one part of the mother tincture and add ninety-nine parts of a suitable vehicle like dispensing alcohol, taking care that one third of the phial remains empty for succussion.
  • Grasp the phial in the right hand with the thumb held firmly over the cork and strike it with ten powerful downward strokes of the arm on a hard elastic body, letting each stroke terminate in a jerk. This gives 1C potency.
  • In making all succeeding potencies, mix one part of the preceding potency to 99 parts of dispensing alcohol and shake the phial as directed. For each new potency, a separate phial has to be used.
Here, the mother tincture is reduced to one-hundredth of its original strength. Hence it is termed as the centesimal scale.

TRITURATION
  • For making the first potency, one part by weight of the crude drug is triturated with ninety-nine parts by weight of sugar of milk, for a period of one hour, including three stages, each consuming twenty minutes.
  • For the second potency, one part by weight of the first centesimal potency is triturated with ninety-nine parts by weight of sugar of milk.
  • Trituration is done upto third centesimal potency after which it is converted to liquid potency.

DECIMAL SCALE

DEFINITION
Decimal scale of potentisation is based on the principle that the first potency should contain one-tenth part of the original drug and each succeeding potency should contain one-tenth part of the potency preceding it.

INTRODUCTION
Dr. Constantine Hering of Philadelphia was the first who introduced the decimal scale.Dr. Vehsemeyer of Berlin, in 1836, in a precise manner, set forth the principles, therein involved. He expresses himself in the following manner:

DESIGNATION
The decimal potency is denoted by suffixing the letter 'X' or 'D' to the number indicating the potency, i.e. the first potency is 1X or 1D in the decimal scale, followed by 2X or 2D and so on.

METHOD OF PREPARATION
SUCCUSSION

  • Take a perfectly clean and new phial.
  • Pour into it, the exact proportion of the mother tincture of the drug (one part), and then add a suitable vehicle like dispensing alcohol (nine parts), taking care that one-third of the phial remains empty for succussion. Put the cork on the phial.
  • Grasp the phial in the right hand with the thumb held firmly over the cork and strike it with ten powerful downward strokes of the arm, or by striking the closed right hand against the palm of the left hand or hard but elastic body or by a suitable mechanical potentizer, letting each stroke terminate in a jerk. The 2X or 2D potency is now ready.
  • For each potency, a separate new phial has to be used. All succeeding potencies are prepared under this scale by mixing one part of the preceding potency to nine parts of dispensing alcohol.

FOR INSOLUBLE SUBSTANCES [TRITURATION]
  • For making 1X or 1D potency, one part by weight of the crude drug is triturated with nine parts by weight of sugar of milk, for a period of one hour, including three stages, each consuming twenty minutes.
  • All succeeding potencies are made by taking one part of the preceding potency with nine parts of sugar of milk.
  • Trituration is done upto 6X or 6D potency after which it is converted to liquid potency.
NO. CENTESIMAL SCALE DECIMAL SCALE
1. INTRODUCTION
Hahnemann - 5th edn, Organon of Medicine - 1833; Aphorism 270
INTRODUCTION
Hering of Philadelphia, Vehsemeyer of Berlin - 1836
2. DEFINITION
1st potency contains 1/100th of original drug
DEFINITION
1st potency contains 1/10th of original drug
3. DRUG : VEHICLE
1 : 99
DRUG : VEHICLE
1 : 9
4. DESIGNATION
Suffixing 'C' or 'CH' or nothing
DESIGNATION
Suffixing 'X' or 'D'
5. APPLICATION
Used to make higher potencies
APPLICATION
Used to make lower potencies, especially upto 6X;
In new method of preparation of mother tincture
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