Source of Materia Medica
How To Study
Aspects of Remedy
 Constitution & Temperament
 Sphere Of Action
 Causation & Modalities
 Physical Generals
 Physical Particulars
Materia Medica Detail

Materia Medica is a study of symptoms of a drug in a systemic manner. It is the pharmacopia of the Homoeopathic drugs.Dr. Hahnemann, in the late 18th century, introduced Homoeopathy for the benefit of mankind. He arrived at the homoeopathic principle through a series of experiments where he found that, a substance capable of producing certain set of symptoms of an illness in a healthy human being could be successfully used to treat a disease when similar set of symptoms are observed in an ailing individual. This substance is termed as a REMEDY. Every naturally occurring substance has some potential curative properties. One such source material is collected and potentised which eventually is used as a remedy. This substance is proved on healthy human beings and the symptoms experienced by them are carefully recorded.This compilation of the symptoms of a substance in a systemic manner is called as Materia Medica. Dr. Hahnemann had proved various remedies, which he compiled in his book 'Materia Medica Pura'.The other prominent Homoeopaths who made invaluable contributions to Dr. Hahnemann's work were Dr. T.F. Allen, Dr. Nash, Dr. Boericke, Dr. Boenninghausen, Dr. Hering and Dr. Kent. They carried out rigorous provings of many unproved substances and added to the existing Materia Medica, which are referred till date as main reference books by doctors all over the world. Today, Homoeopaths have more than about 3000 remedies available in various potencies and many newer remedies are being added to the existing materia medica even now.



This is a process where a drug is administered to a group of healthy individuals and the symptoms expressed by them are noted systematically in the Materia Medica. Dr. Hahnemann, Dr. Hering and others proved various medicines in this manner.


This is a coincidental proving when a remedy clinically administered to a sick person for certain complaint, cures some other symptoms too (that were not recorded during a proving) , which were not considered while giving the remedy. When this identical phenomena is reconfirmed a number of times, it is termed as a clinical proving.

For e.g.
Bryonia was administered to a sick person for some gastric symptoms and during the treatment some of the following chest symptoms he had were cured simultaneously:

  • Sharp stitching pain in the right side of chest, < deep breathing and coughing
  • Cough excited by coming into a warm room
  • Pleurisy

This was seen to happen in a number of cases where Bryonia, when given for some other complaints, also cured the chest symptoms. This is how it was confirmed that Bryonia is a good remedy for sharp stitching pains in pleurisy. These symptoms were not recorded by any prover in the drug proving but were confirmed when clinically administered to the sick.


This is a proving which occurs due to an accidental or chance consumption of a substance.

For e.g.
Physostigma plant has poisonous beans. A group of children in Liver pool happened to these beans, which they found among the sweepings of a ship from Africa. These beans produced loss of muscular power, prostration and feeble slow pulse in 46 children who had to be hospitalized, and produced cold and diarrhea in one third of them. These symptoms were later considered as curative symptoms of the drug.


Doctrine of signature is founded on the belief that a substance carried within itself likeness to some organ or part of the human economy and hence the physical character, appearance or some other characteristics of the drug substance can suggest its use.
E.g. Elaterium

Its common name is 'Squirting Cucumber'. It is a creeper that grows in dry, rocky soil; and has a weak stem with lot of tendrils, which bears walnut-sized, rough, yellow-green fruit. This fruit opens up at the least disturbance and sprays its brownish black seeds, mixed with mucous through a small opening at the top to a distance of 4 meters.The drug when proved has characteristic profuse watery stools, coming out with a gush, which is plainly typified in the explosion by means of which the ripe fruit scatters its seeds.
E.g. Hypericum Perforatum

The leaves of this plant have multiple perforations, which can be seen when the leaf is held in front of the sun.Hence the drug proved to be of great use in perforating injuries.
E.g. Euphrasia

The petals of its flower have a black spot on them, which bears a lot of resemblance to the human pupil.Hence Euphrasia is thought to be a good drug for eye complaints.


Acids have a corrosive, violent action on any tissue and leads to burning, inflammation, ulceration, excoriation with fetidness and putrefaction.
For e.g. Carbolic acid

  • Profound prostration, collapse; surface pale and bathed in cold sweat
  • Pains are terrible; come suddenly, last a short time, disappear suddenly

The above symptoms depict the violent action of the remedy.

  • Malignant and septic conditions e.g. lupus, carbuncles, cancerous sores, sloughing wounds, and chronic ulcers
  • Cancer of the stomach
  • Gangrene
  • Burns tend to ulceration and ichorous discharge

These symptoms suggest the corrosive and ulcerative properties of the remedy.

  • Pricking, burning sensation
  • Putrid, offensive discharges

These highlight the fetidness and putrefaction that is common to all acids.


There are more than 3000 well-proved remedies listed in various Materia medicas. In order to ease the study of this vast data every remedy in the Materia Medica is listed in a certain format as follows:

  • Common Name
  • Family/Class
  • Source
  • Physiological Action
  • Generalities
  • Ailments From (A/F)
  • Modalities - Aggravating or Ameliorating factors like time, temperature, open air, posture, motion, sleep, discharges, eating, drinking, touch, pressure etc.
  • Mind - Description of emotions, feelings, thoughts, intellect, fears, dreams etc.
  • Physical Particulars - Affection of particular parts/organs/systems of the body.
  • Remedy Relationship - Remedies that are related and compatible or complementary to it and also those that can antidote its action or follow well after it.

Let us take one example to understand this format.

Common Name
Yellow Jasmine
Prepared from roots and bark
Physiological Action
It acts upon the muscles and motor nerves producing complete relaxation and prostration.
In muscles, it causes overpowering aching; tiredness; heaviness; weakness and soreness.
It affects the motor nerves producing functional paralysis; tremors or twitching and inco-ordination of muscles.
Suited to young people and women of nervous, hysterical temperament.
General prostration.
Dizziness, drowsiness, dullness and trembling
Ailments From (A/F)
Fright, Fear, exciting news, sudden emotions, unpleasant surprise
Aggravation(<): damp weather, before thunderstorm, bad news, tobacco smoking, thinking of complaints, sun.
Amelioration(>): profuse urination; sweating
Nervous, excitable
Anticipatory anxiety from an unusual ordeal
Stage fright
Nervous dread of appearing in public
Children fear of falling and grasp the crib or nurse
Fear, that unless on move heart will cease beating
Grief, cannot cry; broods over her loss
Physical Particulars
Vertigo with visual symptoms
Sensation of band around the head
Headache preceded by blindness
Great heaviness of eyelids, cannot keep them open
Usually thirstless
Diarrhoea from bad news
Lameness in single parts
Muscles do not obey the will – inco-ordination
Fever - Chill running up and down the spine; heat with absence of thirst
Remedy Relationship
Compatible: Baptisia (in typhoid, influenza), Ipecac (in ague)
Compare: Con., Curare (paralysis)
Antidoted by: Atrop, Chin, Coff
Complementary: Arg-n, Sep


The natural history of the drug substance and its chemical analysis also aid us in comprehending its symptoms.
E.g.- Minerals, plants, animal products, human tissues and discharges, radioactive metals etc


This section includes the history of the drug substance, its common name, the sphere of action and its pathogenesis. It also mentions whether the remedy is acute or chronic and whether its action is superficial or deep. Let us understand this with few examples.

  1. Hyoscyamus - Common name of Hyoscyamus is ' Henbane' because it is fatal to fowls. It was used in the seventeenth century as a medicine but was rejected then, because it was considered it to be highly poisonous. It was again reintroduced as a medicine by the old school in 1872, as a sedative and anti-spasmodic; and even as a hypnotic in cases where opium would be used. It acts on the nervous system causing hysteria, convulsions, twitching and trembling of muscles.

  2. Merc-sol - It is a mercurial preparation prepared by Dr. Hahnemann as a substitute for the corrosive mercurial salts in use at that time. It was prepared by precipitating Mercury from its solution in nitric acid by means of caustic ammonia.It is a deep acting, syphilitic remedy that affects more or less every organ and tissue of the body causing glandular enlargements and ulceration of the tissues

  3. Lachesis - Native American name of this snake is surukuku (Bushmaster). The poison of this snake was first proved by Dr. Hering. Like other snake poisons, it decomposes blood, affects the heart and circulation. It also affects the nerves, especially the cutaneous and vasomotor, which become very sensitive.

Constitution And Temperament


Physical Constitution:
It is the physical make up and appearance of a person. In our Materia Medica there are specific remedies, which correspond to a particular constitution, and hence knowing the physical constitution of the patient can be very useful in selecting a remedy.
For e.g.:
Calc carb:
Suited to people with blond hair, light complexion, blue eyes, fair skin and having a tendency towards obesity. It is also suited to fat children with red face, flabby muscles; who sweat easily and take cold easily

Better adapted to thin and emaciated than to fleshy persons, with dark eyes, red hair and freckles. Suited to women of choleric temperament or to persons of a less melancholic temperament with a disposition to low spirits and indolence. Also adapted to women who have not recovered from the change of life "have never felt well since that time."

Adapted to bilious, lymphatic, plethoric constitutions; persons who are lively and entertaining when well, but violent and often delirious when sick. Also suited to sensitive, nervous women and children, with light hair, blue eyes, fine complexion and delicate skin.

It indicates an individual's character, disposition and tendencies as revealed in his reactions; it also denotes the characteristic way in which an individual behaves especially towards others.

1. CHOLERIC: It is an irritable personality, easily inclined to anger
For e.g. Chamomilla, Hyoscyamus, Bryonia

2.MELANCHOLIC: It is a sad, thoughtful hypochondrial state of mind where a person is inclined to depression and irrational fears
For e.g. Aurum metallicum, Ignatia

3.NERVOUS: It is a worried, high-strung, apprehensive and excitable state of mind. A person reacts to any situation in a quick and excited manner.
For e.g. Lycopodium, Arsenic, Anacardium

4.PHLEGMATIC: It is an indolent, slow, sluggish, torpid personality
For e.g. Calcarea carb, Pulsatilla

5.SANGUINE: It is a cheerful, optimistic confident personality with hemorrhagic tendency.
For e.g. Phosphorus, Ferrum

Sphere of Action
Note : An affinity or predominant effect (What the drug produces) of the drug on body systems/organs

For E.g.
1. Apis Mel
Especially acts on cellular tissue esp. of eyes, throat, face, ovaries and neck of the urinary bladder causing edema of skin and mucus membranes.It also acts on serous membranes of heart, brain, pleura etc producing inflammation with effusion.Sphere of Action Pathogenesis Skin and Mucus membrane Inflammation, Oedema, Stinging pain Serous Membranes Inflammation resulting in dropsical effusion.
Sphere of ActionPathogenesis
Skin and Mucus membrane Inflammation, Oedema, Stinging pain
Serous MembranesInflammation resulting in dropsical effusion

2. Hamamelis
The principle action of this drug is on the veins esp. of rectum; genitals, limbs and throat; producing venous congestion; varicose veins, haemorrhoids and venous haemorrhages from every orifice of the body; nose, bowels, uterus and bladder Sphere of Action Pathogenesis Veins Venous congestion and inflammation causing phlebitis, varicose veins, ulcers and hemorrhoids.
Sphere of ActionPathogenesis
VeinsVenous congestion and inflammation causing phlebitis, varicose veins, ulcers and hemorrhoids.

Causation And Modalities
Causation is the origin of the symptoms. Often patients can trace the commencement of their illness to certain causes, which could be either physical or mental. These are listed in materia medica as 'AILMENTS FROM' (A/F)

For e.g.
1. Aconite has A/F: fright; that produces agonizing fear, anxiety and restlessness. The person is very nervous, anticipates death and is terror-stricken. The person is impatient, besides himself and frantic with fear.
2. Rhus-tox has A/F from spraining or straining a single part, muscle or tendon, over lifting, too much summer bathing in lake or river, getting wet in rain

Causative factors are grouped under:
Predisposing factorsThese are conditions that render a subject liable to a particular disease
Precipitating factorsThese are conditions that trigger a disease
Maintaining factorsThese are conditions that sustain the disease
E.g. Essential hypertension

Predisposing factors include:
- Hereditary predisposition
- Obesity

Precipitating factor could be:
- Shock due to sudden business loss
- Any anxious or stressful condition

Maintaining cause could be:
- Daily rich diet and excessive salt intake
- Constant high pressure at job

Precipitating factors are important in acute prescriptions, while predisposing and maintaining causes help in the prescription of constitutional remedy in chronic cases.

Circumstances or conditions that modify the intensity of the symptom are termed as Modalities.

An increase in the intensity of symptoms is known as an aggravation and is denoted by the sign(<)
A decrease in the intensity of symptoms is known as an amelioration and is denoted by the sign(>)

Some of the most important modalities that affect a symptom are Time, Temperature, Open air, Posture, Being alone, Motion, Sleep, Eating and Drinking, Touch, Pressure, Discharges, Food etc.Conditions that modify the symptoms of a patient are very important and are termed as characteristic symptoms for that patient.
For e.g.
The patient's pain in the abdomen is
> Lying on the painful side          < Eating fried food
> Drinking cold water
These modalities help us to come to an accurate prescription for the patient, as they are peculiar to that patient.

Physical Generals/Leading/Guiding Symptoms
1. Appetite:
It is the physical desire especially for food. In the altered state, it may be increased or decreased.

For e.g.
Easy satiety - It is a state of being easily satisfied with small quantity of food.
E.g. Lycopodium and Platina
Ravenous hunger - It is a tremendously increased appetite
E.g. Iodum has ravenous appetite but yet there is emaciation

2. Cravings & Aversion:
Craving:It is an intense desire for certain types of food
For e.g.
Desire for eggs in Calcarea carb
Desire sweets in Lycopodium, Argentum nitricum
Desire for salt in Natrum Mur
Desire for cold drinks in Phosphorus
Aversion:It is an intense dislike for certain types of food
For e.g.
Aversion to warm drinks in Phosphorus, Pulsatilla
Aversion to meat in Calcarea, Pulsatilla, Sepia
Aversion sweets in Phosphorus, Graphites, Causticum
Cravings and Aversions are important physical generals that need to be considered while selecting the remedy

3. Discharges:
These include:
Normal excretions from the body like urine, stool, sweat etc and Abnormal secretions in certain diseased conditions
For e.g.
Coryza- it is a discharge from nose due to an allergy or an infection
Following details should be considered while studying the discharges:
a) The character of the discharge - The discharges can be acrid or bland, thick or thin, watery, stringy, sticky, tenacious or viscid.
For e.g.
Acrid discharges of Allium cepa
Sticky, stringy discharges of Kali bich
Bland discharges of Pulsatilla

b) Color of the discharge - Colour of the discharge varies with the disease and it also varies in different individuals.
For e.g.
Yellowish-greenish discharge of Pulsatilla
Golden yellow discharges of Natrum phos
Milky white discharges of Sepia

c) Odour of the discharge -It can be offensive or fetid or may have some specific smell
For e.g.
Kreosote has fetid discharges from all the mucous membranes
Medorrhinum has oozing of moisture at the anus, smelling like
Arsenic alb has discharges with a cadaverous Odour

d) Quantity of the discharge -It can be profuse (copious) or scanty
For e.g.
Merc sol has profuse discharges like profuse salivation, profuse
Sepia has scanty menses

e) Staining property of the discharge - Discharges can leave stains that are delible or indelible.
Indelible - the stains of the discharges cannot be washed easily
For e.g.
Kreosote has indelible stains

Delible - the stains of the discharges can be washed easily
For e.g.
Belladonna has perspiration leaving dark stains on the linen

4. Pain :
It is an abnormal sensation experienced especially during illness at the affected site. It is described in following manner:
a) Description of the character of pain: drawing, pressing, sharp, shooting, shifting, pulsating, burning, wandering, shifting, labor-like, stinging, stitching, tearing, flying, electric shock like
For e.g.
Burning, stinging pains of Apis melifica
stitching pains of Bryonia, Kali carb
Shifting, wandering pains of Pulsatilla, Kali sulph

b) Intensity: It is the severity of pain felt by the patient
For e.g.
Agonizing pain in abdomen in Colocynth

c) Onset and Decline:
For e.g.
Pains may come and go suddenly as in Belladona, Kali phos
Pains appear and disappear gradually as in Stannum met
Pains appears suddenly, remain for a short while and disappear
gradually as in Pulsatilla

d) Radiation:
Sometimes the sensation of pain shifts and radiates to other body parts from its site of origin.
For e.g.
Pains shoot backwards or in all directions in Chelidonium
Pains alternate sides in Lac can
Pains rapidly shifting from one part to another in Pulsatilla

5. Menses (Menstrual cycle) :
The periodic sequence of hormonal changes in a sexually mature, nonpregnant woman at 'monthly' intervals is called as the menstrual cycle.
The following factors make it characteristic.
a) Color of menses
For e.g.
Bright red menses as in Phosphorus, Millefolium
Brown menses as in Secale cor
Dark menses as in Crocus sativa

b) Odour of menses
For e.g.
Kreosote has offensive menses.
Lac caninum has menses smelling like ammonia.

c) Character of the flow
Copious (profuse)- Increased flow of blood
For e.g.
Profuse menses of Murex, Sepia
Scanty menses - Decreased flow of the blood
For e.g.
Alumina has flow only for a day
Euphrasia has flow only for an hour

Clotted menses
For e.g.
Sabina has menstrual flow of bright red blood mixed with dark clots

d) Staining due to menses - The flow sometimes leaves the stains, which can either be delible or may be indelible (difficult to wash)
For e.g.
Kreosote has menses staining the linen yellow
Mag. Carb has menses leaving stains that are difficult to wash off

e) Mental symptoms associated with menses
For e.g.
Natrum Mur has irritability before the menses
Pulsatilla has weeping before and during the menses
Calc. Carb has menses from slightest emotional excitement

Following examples of remedies that have very characteristic menses:
Menses - too early, prolonged, profuse, lumpy and foul smelling. Menstrual flow intermits; ceases on sitting or walking; reappears on lying down
Before menses - severe headache
During menses - severe headache; difficult hearing; buzzing and roaring
After menses - eruptions
Menstrual pain-During menses but much worse after menses
- Relieved by cold drinks

Menses too early and too profuse, or too late, too scanty, too short
Menses every two weeks; flow is dark, clotted, with bearing down feeling
Menstrual flow only at night, not in the daytime, less while moving.
Before menses - Diarrhea
During menses - Diarrhea; excoriation in the inguinal fold
After menses - Leucorrhoea
In between menses - Occasional show of flow

6. Sleep :
It is a periodic state of physiological rest during which consciousness is suspended and metabolic rate of the body is decreased.
Various factors regarding sleep need to be studied:
- Posture of the body during sleep ntensity of the sleep
- Dreams etc
For e.g.
Medorrhinum sleeps in a knee-elbow position
Nux-m has excessive drowsiness and sleepiness
Stramonium has frightful dreams; awakes in fear or screaming

7. Perspiration :
It is a normal excretion by the sweat glands of skin that helps to maintain the body temperature.
Physical characteristics of perspiration like quantity, Odour and its staining property are important features to be considered

a) Quantity: It may be profuse or scanty
Profuse perspiration as in Silica, Lycopodium
Scanty perspiration as in Cina, Eup-per

b) Odour: Normal perspiration is Odourless but some individuals can have offensive, putrid, sour, fetid, sweetish, and cadaverous Odour to their perspiration
For e.g.
Perspiration smelling like urine in Cantharis, Nitric acid
Offensive sweat in Graphites, Lycopodium, Silica
Sweetish perspiration in Caladium

c) Staining: The stains left by the perspiration can be delible or indelible. The color of the stains also makes it a characteristic feature.
For e.g.
Perspiration stains red in Lachesis, Nux-m
Perspiration leaves green stains in Cuprum
Perspiration stains are difficult to wash in Mag - carb,
Perspiration leaves white salty deposits in Natrum Mur

d) Parts of the body: Each individual has perspiration on some particular parts of the body like scalp, palms, soles, upper parts of the body etc.
For e.g.
Perspiration on the scalp - Calc carb, Rheum
Perspiration on palms - Silica, Sulphur
Perspiration one sided- Bry, China

8. Thermal State Of The Patient :
Thermal state shows the adaptation and reaction of the person to different kinds of temperatures which can be determined by asking the patient regarding his reaction to sun, fan, open air, season, covering, bathing, and change of weather. The patient can be chilly, hot or ambithermal.

If the patient says “I do not require fan in any season, I take a hot water bath through out the year and need to cover myself completely in open air especially in winter”, the patient is considered to be CHILLY.
E.g. Calc Carb, Causticum, and Kali carb are chilly patients.

If the person cannot tolerate exposure to sun, needs to have fan constantly, does not need covering even in winter, perspires a lot and is very comfortable in winter, the person is termed to be HOT.
E.g. Natrum Mur, Sulphur, Iodium and Bryonia are hot patients.

If the person is not affected by extremes of heat or cold, then the person is termed as being AMBITHERMAL.
E.g. Natrum Sulph, Amm. Mur are ambithermal patients.

9. Sexual Symptoms :
Here the symptoms regarding the sexual preferences, coition and the difficulties in sexual performance, etc of the patient are noted.
For e.g.
Violent sexual passion in Picric acid
Suppressed sexual desire in Conium, Staphysagria
Increased sexual desire but no ability to perform in Lycopodium
Priapism that makes the sexual act difficult in Thymol
Increased sexual desire but is physically impotent.
Erection is slow, insufficient, weak and has involuntary seminal
emissions as in Selenium

10. Diathesis :
It is the hereditary or acquired susceptibility of the body to one or more diseases.
a. Hemorrhagic: It is a tendency to bleed profusely.
E.g. Phosphorus, Lachesis
b. Rheumatic: Here the patient has tendency towards affection of joints.
E.g. Rhus tox, Bryonia
c. Gouty: It is a tendency towards diseases where uric acid synthesis is affected and causes its excess accumulation in blood stream and joints
E.g. Colchicum, Lycopodium, Urtica urens, Ledum pal
d. Tubercular:
E.g. Silicea, Tuberculinum, Phosphorus, Kali Carb
e. Scrofulous: It is a tendency to glandular enlargements.
E.g. Calc-phos, Calc-carb, Carbo-an, Iodium

11. Periodicity :
When the same set of symptoms occurs at certain regular interval, it is known as its periodicity.
Time Periodicity
For e.g.
Lycopodium has < 4.00-8.00 pm
Ars alb has < 11am to 1.00 pm
Kali carb has < 3.00-4.00 am
Sunrise to sunset aggravation
For e.g.
Natrum Mur
Sunset to sunrise aggravation
For e.g.
Merc sol, Syphilinum
Clock like periodicity
For e.g.
Same hour –Cedron, Sabadilla
Daily – Neuralgia of Kali bich
Every other day – Ipecac, China
Weekly – Amm carb, China
Fortnightly – Ars alb, Lachesis
Annually – Ars alb, Cenchris
Moon phase aggravations and ameliorations
For e.g.
< In the New moon phase - Silica
< In the Full moon phase - Ant Crud

12. Alternations :
Sometimes in patients, symptoms belonging to different organs manifest themselves alternately with each other; these symptoms are known as alternating symptoms.
For e.g.
Kali bich - Rheumatism alternating with gastric complaints
Sulphur- Skin eruptions alternate with gastric complaints
Collinsonia - Haemorrhoids alternating with cardiac symptoms
Abrotanum - Rheumatism alternating with haemorrhoids
Ignatia, Graph- Weeping alternating with cheerfulness.
Disease is the disturbance of the whole organism and not just one organ or system. So to understand the individual as a whole, understanding the mind is very essential. It is the major part of the individualization of the case.
In aphorism 211, Hahnemann states, “The state of the disposition of the patient chiefly determines the selection of the homoeopathic remedy”.

This includes the temperament or personality of the person, his emotional/intellectual state, his life situation/ experiences, any stress that he undergoes at home/work/elsewhere, his interpersonal relationships, influence of environmental factors and related social factors. Understand what hobbies he pursues and why he has chosen them? It is also important to explore if there have been any major incidences which had an impact on him or anything/any situation that he fears. How does he react to the mental tensions or in fearful situations? Ask about the dreams he gets and the feelings in the dream.

Symptoms of the Mind

Direct expressions to the situation - These are the symptoms expressed by an individual in a situation, which are more or less appropriate to the situation.
E.g. Sadness at the death of near and dear ones

Indirect expression to the situation - The original emotions to the situation produce a feeling of guilt or an embarrassment or the person might want to cry etc, and so to prevent this direct expression, the individual takes on an opposite attitude in order to escape from the consequences of the direct expression
E.g. Cheerful when sad
       Anger with bursts of laughing

Symptoms of intellect - They give perception of the surroundings, formulation of ideas and ability to memorize.
E.g. Weakness of memory

Dreams - They denote the subconscious mind.
E.g. Dreams of dead people
       Dreams of teeth falling

Mental emotional symptoms are graded the highest among the other mind symptoms.

Physical Particulars

These are the symptoms related to different organs and systems that are listed from the proving in a particular order, which is as follows:Head, eyes, ears, nose, face, mouth, throat, stomach, abdomen, urinary system, male and female reproductive system, respiratory system, heart, neck and back, extremities, sleep, fever and skin.

Symptoms pertaining to parts gain importance in acute cases especially if they are peculiar, queer, rare and characteristic. Usually strong general symptoms over rule any number of particular symptoms but a strong particular will assert itself if the general symptom is weak.

While studying a symptom, the following characteristics of it should be considered:
1. LOCATION - The site at which the symptom is felt is noted. It includes the side that is affected, the extension of the site affected and the radiation of the symptom to other body parts.

In the proving of a certain drug, a specific affinity for a particular side is noted; this is considered to be a characteristic physical location, specific for this remedy. This side affection is graded higher than a weak, non-characteristic physical general.
For e.g.
Lachesis - Symptoms appears predominantly on the left side

Pathology of the disease affects some organ or system and homoeopathic remedies have specific affinity for certain organ/system.
For e.g.
Chelidonium - It is predominantly a right-sided remedy and acts very specifically upon the liver and the portal system. It has tenderness over the liver and liver pains that go backward or remain fixed at angle of right scapula.The above e.g. illustrates:
-Side affection
-System affection
-Organ affection
-Radiation of the pain

2. SENSATION - Qualify the sensations experienced by an individual in a particular organ. There are varied sensations like burning, pricking, poking, pulling, electric shock like, cramp like, coldness, numbness etc. Allow the person to express the sensation on his own and not by asking leading questions.A particular type of sensation felt at a site could sometimes be seen at the general level/mental state of the individual.
For e.g.
Croton Tig
It has a peculiar sensation as if the 'skin were hide-bound', locally at the level of skin. The Croton tig patient also feels mentally hide-bound. This sensation is felt at the level of the mind as 'can't think outside of himself''. Hence 'sensation as if hide-bound' becomes an important particular symptom.
Nitric acid has splinter like sensation in the throat
Arnica has a sore, bruised sensation at the site of affection

3. MODALITY - These are the conditions, which aggravate and ameliorate a particular symptom. The symptom becomes characteristic when important modalities are also considered while evaluating.
For e.g.
Bryonia has all the complaints < slightest motion and > absolute rest

Often, the modalities do not have any pathological relation to the symptom; hence making them characteristic.
For e.g.
Chelidonium has jaundice; with much nausea, > drinking milk

4. CONCOMITANT - Physical or mental symptoms experienced by the patient along with the chief complaints are known as concomitant symptoms. They only have a time relation with the main complaint, in the sense, they occur along with the main complaint only. These symptoms cannot be explained by the diagnosis of the disease and so become characteristic.
For e.g.
Iodum has an increased appetite that accompanies all the complaints
Lac defloratum has profuse urination with headache

Following examples gives the description of the physical particular in a remedy.

Bryonia is a good remedy for gastric and nervous headaches of sedentary people
Exposure to draught of cold air
Ironing (warmth)
Mortification and chagrin
Too much of summer bathing
As if the brain would burst through the forehead or the skull would split open. There is also fullness and heaviness in the head.
Heaviness and fullness of the forehead
Bursting sensation in the skull
Cannot keep eyes open
< From slightest motion***
< Morning, on first opening the eyes
< Stooping
< Coughing
< Ironing
> By pressure**
> By bandages**
> Lying on painful side
> Complete rest***
Dry, white coated tongue
Great thirst for large quantity of cold water at long intervals
Spongia is a good remedy for dry, croupy cough. It is mostly adapted to children.
Exposure to cold
Mental excitement
Upper respiratory passage and lungs
Suffocation as if had to breathe through a sponge
Great dryness of the mucous membranes of the throat, larynx and trachea
Chest weak; can scarcely talk
Clothes feel uncomfortable
Burning in chest and throat
Muscular pain in chest, head and abdomen
Dry, like a saw driven through a pine board
Dry, hollow, barking, crowing, or sawing cough
Rasping, ringing, wheezing, whistling cough
< Sweets
< Cold drinks
< Smoking
< Lying
< Before midnight
< Singing, talking
< Head low
< Dry cold winds
> Eating, drinking warm
Violent painful palpitations