PHARMACY
Introduction
Potentization
Centisimal & Decimal Scale
Potency
Trituration & Succussion
Fifty Millesimal scale
Potentization
(Modified Techniques)
Scope of Homeopathy
MECHANICS OF POTENTISATION
SUCCUSSION

Succussion is a process of potentisation, by which preparation of medicine takes place by the use of a liquid vehicle like alcohol or water, by shaking in definite method according to Pharmacopoeia.

Indications
Drug substances that are soluble in alcohol or distilled water are succussed. Drugs belonging to Classes I IV (tinctures) and Classes V and VI (solutions) of the Old method of preparation of homoeopathic medicines are potentised by the process of succussion.

Vehicle for succussion
Alcohol is used in most of the cases [Class I, II, III, IV, VI], except in cases where the medicinal substances are only soluble in water [Class V].

Process of Succussion
To prepare potencies, by the process of succussion -

  • 1 part of the drug and 9 or 99 parts of alcohol is taken in a new, well cleansed and labeled glass phial, keeping upper 1/3rd of the phial remains empty. This space is kept empty to generate friction, when the liquid strikes the walls of the phial.
  • The phial is then corked tightly. Shake until the contents are well mixed.
  • The phial is grasped in the right hand with the thumb held firmly over the cork and the bottom of the phial is placed on the pulp of the little finger of the right hand. The remaining fingers tightly grasp the phial.
  • The phial is struck with ten powerful downward strokes of the arm or by striking the closed right hand against open palm of the left hand or a hard, but elastic body, like a leather pad, letting each stroke terminate in a jerk. Hahnemann advised two strokes in the 5th edition and ten strokes in the sixth edition.
  • The strokes should be forceful, successive, each stroke ending in a jerk, from uniform distance with uniform strength.
  • The next potency is now ready. Mark the name of the drug with potency on the phial.

Preparation according to scale
(A) On the decimal scale
Take a clean and new phial. Fit a good cork into it and mark the name of the drug with 2X on the cork. Take one part of the drug into the phial and add nine parts of the liquid vehicle, taking care that the upper 1/3rd of the phial remains empty for succussion. Grasp the phial in the right hand with the thumb held firmly over the cork and shake it with ten powerful downward strokes of the arm, letting each stroke terminate in a jerk by striking the closed right hand against a leather pad on the open palm of the left hand. Mark the name of the drug with 2X potency on the phial. For all succeeding potencies, add to one part of the preceding dilution, nine parts of the vehicle and succuss the phial as directed.

(B) On the centesimal scale
Take a clean and new phial. Fit a good cork into it and mark the name of the drug with 2C on the cork. Take one part of the drug into the phial and add ninety nine parts of the liquid vehicle, taking care that the upper 1/3rd of the phial remains empty for succussion. Grasp the phial in the right hand with the thumb held firmly over the cork and shake it with ten powerful downward strokes of the arm, letting each stroke terminate in a jerk by striking the closed right hand against a leather pad on the open palm of the left hand. Mark the name of the drug with 2C potency on the phial. For all succeeding potencies, add to one part of the preceding dilution, ninety nine parts of the vehicle and succuss the phial as directed.

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TRITURATION

Trituration is a process of potentisation, by which preparation of medicine takes place by the use of a solid vehicle like sugar of milk, by grinding in definite order according to Pharmacopoeia.
Drug substances are triturated up to 3C or 6X. These are then converted to a liquid potency and further potentisation is carried out by the process of succussion.

Indications
Substances those are insoluble in liquid vehicle like alcohol and water are triturated. These drugs belong to Class VII, Class VIII and Class IX of the Old method.

Vehicle for Trituration
Sugar of milk is used for the process of trituration because the preservative properties of sugar of milk are superior to cane sugar and most other substances. Its crystalline particles are very hard and gritty and hence are of great use in grinding down the particles of drugs during trituration.

Process of Succussion
Before beginning the work, the cleanliness of the apparatus is confirmed. The apparatus required are an unglazed porcelain mortar, pestle, spatula, measuring tile, stop-clock and balance.

  • One part of the drug substance and 9 or 99 parts of sugar milk is taken.
  • The drug is taken in a porcelain mortar that is unglazed by rubbing with wet sand.
  • The sugar of milk is divided into three parts in the ratio of 1:3:5 or 11:33:55, on a measuring tile.
  • The process of trituration takes one hour.
    1. The entire process is divided into three stages. Each stage consumes twenty minutes. In each stage, one part of sugar of milk is added.
    2. Each stage is divided into two sub-stages that consume ten minutes each. The process carried out in the first ten minutes of each stage is repeated for the next ten minutes.
    3. Each sub-stage of ten minutes consists of grinding or pulverizing for six minutes; and scraping and mixing for four minutes.
  • Trituration is done for six minutes with pestle fully pressed down with firm grip and thumb on top. It is firmly moved in anticlockwise direction for a right-handed person, in a circular fashion, going from center to periphery and back from periphery to center without lifting the hand, movement being at wrist joint. The mixture is then thoroughly scraped from the walls of the mortar with the spatula and mixed uniformly together.

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STAGE ONE DURATION 20 MINUTES

Sub-stage one
The drug is taken in the mortar and the first part of sugar of milk is added to it. The mixture is mixed with a spatula. It is then triturated for a period of six minutes. It is then scraped from the walls of the mortar to which it adheres for three minutes and uniformly mixed with the spatula for a period of one minute.

Sub-stage two
The same mixture after ten minutes of process is again subjected to pulverizing for six minutes, scraping for three minutes and mixing for one minute. This completes twenty minutes of the process and stage one.

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STAGE TWO DURATION 20 MINUTES

Sub-stage one
The second part of sugar of milk is now added to the mixture in the mortar and uniformly mixed with the spatula. The mixture is triturated for a period of six minutes. It is then scraped from the walls of the mortar for three minutes and uniformly mixed with the spatula for a period of one minute.

Sub-stage two
This mixture is again subjected to pulverizing for six minutes, scraping for three minutes and mixing for one minute. This completes forty minutes of the process and stage two.

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STAGE THREE DURATION 20 MINUTES

Sub-stage one
The third and final part of sugar of milk is now added to the mixture in the mortar and uniformly mixed with the spatula. The mixture is triturated for a period of six minutes. It is then scraped from the walls of the mortar for three minutes and uniformly mixed with the spatula for a period of one minute.

Sub-stage two
This mixture is again subjected to pulverizing for six minutes, scraping for three minutes and mixing for one minute. This completes one hour of the process and the final and third stage of trituration

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Preparation according to scale

(A) On the decimal scale
One part by weight of the drug and nine parts by weight of sugar of milk is taken. Sugar of milk is divided into three parts [1 part : 3 parts : 5 parts] as per pharmacopoeia. Sugar of milk is divided in this way, so that there is a homogenous and uniform mixing of the drug with the vehicle. The trituration is then carried out with the three parts of sugar of milk, as directed. This is preserved with the label mentioning the name of the remedy with the potency. all potencies, up to 6X, one part by weight of the preceding potency is triturated for one hour with nine parts by weight of sugar of milk as directed to give the desired potency.

(B) On the centesimal scale
One part by weight of the drug and ninety nine parts by weight of sugar of milk are taken. The sugar of milk is divided into three parts [11 parts : 33 parts : 55 parts] as per pharmacopoeia. Hahnemann, while triturating, divided sugar of milk into three equal parts [33 parts : 33 parts : 33 parts]. Trituration is then carried out with the three parts of sugar of milk, as directed. This is preserved with the label mentioning the name of the remedy with the potency.g potency is triturated for one hour with ninety nine parts by weight of sugar of milk as directed to give the desired potency.

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NOTE
  • In triturating Plumbum, the pestle has to be used softly.
  • In making the first trituration of Mercury, Graphites and Plumbum, double time is required.
  • In triturating Ferrum metallicum, moisture is driven out by keeping the mortar warm.
  • Argentum nitricum and hygroscopic salts cannot be kept well in trituration.
  • Sugar of milk cannot triturate substances that are harder than it, like metals.
  • Sugar of milk has some aldehyde properties and hence reduces some substances like mercury compounds.
  • It is observed that some triturated substances, when they meet with water medium, have some ionic changes.
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TRITURATION ACCORDING TO OLD CLASSES

1. Class VII
Class VII includes dry drug substances that are triturated. Sugar of milk is divided into three parts and trituration consists of three stages. Eg. Arsenic album, Carbo veg, Aurum met

2. Class VIII
Class VIII includes liquid drug substances that are triturated. Here sugar of milk is not divided into three parts. The whole sugar of milk is taken at a time in the mortar and the medicinal substance is poured over it and triturated. Eg. Petroleum, Lachesis, Variolinum

3. Class IX
Class IX includes trituration of fresh plant and animal drugs. Here, the ratio of Drug : Vehicle is 2 : 9 in decimal scale and 2 : 99 in centicimal scale. Here, two parts are taken, because of loss by evaporation during trituration. Eg. Agaricus muscaris, Blatta orientalis, Carcinosin.

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CONVERSION OF TRITURATION INTO LIQUID POTENCIES

Trituration is a laborious and time-consuming process. It is observed that triturations beyond 3C and 6X can be converted into liquid potencies that are further succussed. Trituration below these degrees of fineness cannot be transformed into liquid state.

Conversion in centesimal scale From 3C to 4C
50 drops of distilled water are added to 1 grain of 3C trituration in a clean new vial and dissolved. Then 50 drops of alcohol are added and the vial, only 2/3rd filled with the mixture is succussed with 10 downward strokes. This is the 4C. Of this, 1 drop is added to 99 drops of alcohol and the vial succussed 10 times. This is 5C. Each successive potency is prepared with 1 drop of the preceding potency and 99 drops of alcohol and succussed 10 times.

Conversion in decimal scale From 6X to 8X "Jumping Potency"
Dissolve one part by weight of the 6X trituration in fifty parts by volume of purified water to which fifty parts by volume of dispensing alcohol is added. Give 10 succussion strokes to this liquid mixture. This gives 8X potency.7X liquid potency from 6X trituration is not possible. The first liquid potency prepared from 6X trituration is 8X. Subsequent potencies are prepared in the usual manner, but in preparing the first potency from 8X potency, dilute alcohol is used. 7X, according to the rule governing this scale cannot be prepared in the proportion of one to nine. Distilled water is added first to dissolve the mixture that mainly contains sugar of milk. The drug substance is present in a ratio of 1 in 1000000 parts of the 6X potency. This mixture is found to be soluble in water, even though the original drug substance was insoluble in water and alcohol. Alcohol is added to this solution, as further potencies are prepared in this vehicle. To get 7X potency from 6X, 5 parts by volume of water and 5 parts by volume of alcohol are required to succuss 1 part of 6X potency. This quantity is not sufficient to dissolve the solute. Thus, 50 parts each by volume of water and alcohol is required for the dissolution of 1 part of 6X potency. After succussion, the solute is found to be reduced 100 (10 X 10) times, giving a drug strength equivalent to 8X potency.
Hence, the potency of 7X is skipped when 6X is converted into a liquid potency. This is termed as "Jumping Potency", defined as the conversion of trituration to succussion in decimal scale where 6X is converted to 8X.The conversion is done at 6X, as the strength of the drug substance is so less, that it goes into solution or gets suspended and submits itself to further potentisation by succussion.

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FLUXION POTENCY

It is a special and peculiar process when the 6X potency in the triturated form is turned to 8X potency by succussion without having transitional 7X.

STRAIGHT POTENCY

According to Dr. Burt of London, 7X liquid potency can be prepared from 6X trituration.1 part of 6X trituration is mixed with 9 parts of distilled water. 10 succussion strokes are given. This gives 7X. then, 1 part of 7X is taken and mixed with 9 parts of alcohol and 10 succussion strokes are given. This gives 8X potency.

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